A 54 year old with recurrent hematuria has a cystoscopy

Question Number 0649

Question:
A 54 year old with recurrent hematuria has a cystoscopy. This demonstrates an area of erythema. A biopsy is performed and this demonstrated a loss in the uniformity of the individual cells. There is pleomorphism and deeply stained (hyperchromatic) nuclei. There is no increase in the number of cell layers or mitotic figures. This is most likely secondary to a pathological process called

a) atrophy
b) dysgenesis
c) hypertrophy
d) metaplasia
e) dysplasia


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