USMLE step 2 Mcq 251:Researchers want to conduct a study of the effect of early detection on prognosis in patients with lung cancer

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Question:
Researchers want to conduct a study of the effect of early detection on prognosis in patients with lung cancer. Results show that the patients with lung cancer detected through screening by annual chest x-rays live longer following diagnosis than other patients with lung cancer. This study is most likely to result in
a) Confounding bias
b) lack of sufficient statistical power
c) lead-time bias
d) length -time bias
e) misclassification of lung cancer


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