(MCQS 343-34):A lecturer is giving a talk about a ribonucleic acid virus that causes hepatitis

Correct Answer: D
Nasogastric tubes are contraindicated in a few groups of patients with special predispositions to injury from tube placement. Patients with facial fractures who have a cribriform plate injury may suffer intracranial penetration with a blindly placed nasal tube. Patients who have esophageal strictures or a history of alkali ingestion, especially recent alkali ingestion, may suffer esophageal perforation
Correct Answer: A
A typical attack of Meniere's disease may be preceded by fullness or aching in one or both ears. Hearing fluctuation or tinnitus (ringing or sounds in the ears) may also precede an attack. A Meniere's episode generally involves severe vertigo (spinning), imbalance, nausea, and vomiting. The average attack lasts two to four hours. After a severe attack, most people find that they are extremely exhausted and must sleep for several hours. <br>In some people, Meniere's episodes may occur in clusters; that is, several attacks may occur within a short time. In other cases, weeks, months, or even years may pass between episodes. Between the acute attacks, most people are free of symptoms or note only mild imbalance and tinnitus. <br>In 75 percent of the cases, Meniere's disease is confined to one ear, while in the other 25 percent, both ears are involved. In most cases, a progressive hearing loss occurs in the affected ear(s). Although an acute attack can be incapacitating, the disease itself is not fatal.
Correct Answer: E
hepatitis D is a ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus that requires coinfection with hepatitis B (a deoxyribonucleic acid [DNA] virus) to support its replication. Infection with this agent occurs either simultaneously with acute hepatitis B infection or is superimposed on chronic hepatitis B. Like hepatitis B, hepatitis D is transmitted by percutaneous inoculation and intimate contact. In nonendemic areas, such as the United States and western Europe, hepatitis D has been confined primarily to populations with frequent percutaneous exposures, such as drug addicts and hemophiliacs. In endemic areas, such as the Mediterranean countries, hepatitis D is transmitted primarily through intimate contact. Hepatitis D (delta hepatitis) is being recognized with increasing frequency. Its incubation period is similar to that for hepatitis B, and, when both hepatitis B and hepatitis D infections are acquired simultaneously, a single clinically apparent episode of hepatitis may ensue. There is a slight increase in the risk of fulminant hepatitis when the two infections occur simultaneously, but, in general, the outcome of simultaneous acute hepatitis B and D is no different from the outcome of hepatitis B alone. In contrast, among patients with chronic hepatitis B infection, superimposed hepatitis D may lead to severe, fulminant hepatitis, convert a mild or asymptomatic chronic hepatitis B infection into a severe form of chronic hepatitis ( chronic active hepatitis ), or accelerate the course of chronic active hepatitis. A diagnosis of delta hepatitis is made by demonstrating the appearance of antibody to hepatitis D (anti-HDV)


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