(MCQS 340-342):the ratio of the volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle per beat to the blood left in the left ventricle after ventricular relaxation is known as the

Question:340
Correct Answer: C
Explanation:
Granulomatous enteritis or Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis comprise the two forms of chronic inflammatory bowel disease associated with spondyloarthropathy. The overall prevalence of arthritis in these disorders approaches 10 to 20 percent, and the sex distribution is essentially equal. HLA B27 prevalence in those manifesting arthritis is on the order of 50 percent. As with the chronic juvenile form of psoriatic arthritis, whereby arthritis may antedate the onset of skin disease, so may arthritis be a forme fruste expression of latent inflammatory bowel disease. Peripheral arthritis activity appears to parallel that of the underlying bowel disease, while axial involvement runs an independent course and may be present years before the onset of colitis. Colectomy can be curative of peripheral joint disease in ulcerative colitis, while spondylitic involvement is not influenced. Colectomy in Crohn's, however, appears to incompletely remove affected bowel as residual small bowel mucosal lesions are universal with both axial and appendicular arthritis thereby being unaffected. It is the Crohn's disease-like lesions that are found in ankylosing spondylitis patients on ileocolonoscopy.

Question:
Correct Answer: G
Explanation:
The ejection fraction is simply a ratio of the stroke volume ( volume of blood ejected from the left ventricle per beat) to the blood left in the left ventricle after ventricular relaxation (aka: diastole). Measurement of the ejection fraction is used clinically to determine myocardial contractility which represents the performance of the heart. The ejection fraction can be useful in determining which drugs should be administered to a patient. Ejection Fraction = stroke volume/ blood left in ventricle at end of diastole


Question:342
Correct Answer: F
Explanation:
This is an example of referred pain. After the perforation, the gastric contents passed to the underside of the diaphragm on the upper surface of the liver in the right anterior subphrenic space. The phrenic nerve supplies the parietal peritoneum here. The phrenic nerve is derived from the C3 C4 and C5 segments of the spinal cord. The supraclavicular nerves, which supply the skin over the shoulder, are also derived from the same segments of the spinal cord.


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