USMLE STEP 3 : Q 1-3 : ANSWERS

ANSWERS

Question Number 1

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Question:

Correct Answer: C

Explanation:
Balloon dilation has gained acceptance in the treatment of coarctation of the aorta both native and recurrent.1-6 A number of patients develop recoarctation after balloon angioplasty7-10 possibly as a result of elastic recoil or long segment stenosis. Additionally in order to achieve successful reduction in the gradient, over sizing of the balloon may be necessary with potential for complications. Stents provide radial strength to avoid recoil of the vessel , and a framework for endothelial growth.10 Over the last few years stents have been used in selected patients to treat coarctation of the aorta both native and recurrent with encouraging results.

Question Number 3

Correct Answer: E

Explanation:
The benzodiazepines are a large class of relatively safe and widely prescribed medications that have rapid and profound antianxiety and sedative-hypnotic effects. The benzodiazepines are thought to exert their therapeutic effects by enhancing the inhibitory neurotransmitter systems utilizing GABA. Benzodiazepines bind to a site on the GABA receptor and act as receptor agonists (Perry et al., 1997). Benzodiazepines differ in terms of potency, pharmacokinetics (i.e., elimination half-life), and lipid solubility. The four benzodiazepines currently widely prescribed for treatment of anxiety disorders are diazepam, lorazepam, clonazepam, and alprazolam. Each is now available in generic formulations. Among these agents, alprazolam and lorazepam have shorter elimination half-lives—that is, are removed from the body more quickly—while diazepam and clonazepam have a long period of action (i.e., up to 24 hours). Diazepam also has multiple active metabolites, which increase the risk of carryover effects such as sedation and hangover.

Question Number 4

Correct Answer: C

Explanation:
Methylphenidate is an orally administered central nervous system stimulant that is chemically and pharmacologically similar to the amphetamines In treating children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, methylphenidate produces a calming effect. This action of methylphenidate results in a decrease in hyperactivity and an increase in the child's attention span


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